One of the things that you’ll notice about Mandarin is that once you have a grasp of PinYin, and are able to build a basic vocabulary, grammar isn’t as difficult as it can be with other languages. Most of the differences between grammar in Mandarin and English play to simplicity on the Mandarin side. While someone learning English might have to become familiar with verb conjugation, non-countable nouns, changes to adverbs, and other concepts that can be difficult to grasp, Mandarin doesn’t present as many grammar pitfalls. In Mandarin, nouns have no plural state, and verb conjugation can be done by adding a couple of words. We also include the Mandarin PinYin and their pronunciation at the end of this book for your reference.